The launch of Telegram Open Network mainnet has been delayed till early 2020, meanwhile, the testing of TON blockchain is in progress.
The architecture of TON Blockchain is unique due to having such specific features as a ‘self-healing’ vertical blockchain mechanism and Instant Hypercube Routing that allow it to be fast, reliable, scalable and resistible at once.
However, if there is a need for correcting the incorrect blocks, into the ‘vertical chain of blocks’ is entered a new block that contains a replacer for the currently active ‘horizontal’ block or the ‘difference of blocks’, containing only the description of the parts of the previous version of the block that need to be replaced.
The TON approach to sharding is ‘bottom-up’, explained as follows.
Of course, it is impractical to have hundreds of millions of blockchains, with updates (i.e., new blocks) usually appearing quite rarely in each of them. In order to implement them more efficiently, we group these “account-chains” into “shardchains”, so that each block of the shardchain is essentially a collection of blocks of account-chains that have been assigned to this shard.
The collators are tasked with preparing the shardchain blocks and submitting them to validation by the PoS nodes for which they obtain their fraction of reward for creating a block. In such case, the collators are basically additional participants of the consensus as the validators almost always generate the blocks on their own.
Thus, the scheme and the amount of reward that the nominators obtain fully depends on the results of the work of the validators, the nominators lending them their Gram tokens while ‘voting’ for the validators.
Both the individual token holders and pools, which manage individual TON users’ funds and simultaneously act as validators, acting as delegates through the TON smart contract, can become nominators.
Next, validators need to reach a consensus based on the BFT (Byzantine fault tolerance protocol) algorithm, similar to the pBFT or Honey Badger BFT protocol. Then, after consensus is reached, a new block is created, while transaction fees are distributed among the validators.
It should be noted that each validator can be selected to participate in several subsets of validators; therefore, it is assumed that all validation and consensus algorithms are run in parallel.
TON Testnet: hands-on experience in the Telegram Open Network
interact with the Full Node validator-engine-console
work with the lite-client
contains everything that is related to the wallet, this is the only publicly accessible tonlib-cli API.
tonlib-cli -c ton-lite-client-test1.config.json-v 0
The network base
Yet, the maximum number of tokens for one validator cannot exceed 10 million GRAM and for an election to take place the minimum size of collective stake should exceed 1 million GRAM.
How are validators elected?
Most likely, the contract will be different in the mainnet, so, the current version is applicable only for the testnet.
A share of 10,000 GRAM does not mean that you can become a validator, as receiving test tokens could be easily automated by requests to testgiver.
It is imperative that you have a high-speed Internet connection: with a projected average weighted load of 100 Mbit/sec, you must be able to handle peak loads of up to 1Gbit/sec.
The time the validators are elected for?
> runmethod -1:A4C2C7C05B093D470DE2316DBA089FA0DD775FD9B1EBFC9DC9D04B498D3A2DDA participant_list
Can TON be blocked?
However, TON will not have such opportunities: it is not possible to quickly move nodes, while validators will not want to risk their shares. Therefore, most likely, in the near future, Telegram developers will introduce new solutblocks, for example, using ADNL Proxy.
3 ALIBABA CLOUD
and 1 person possibly hosting it at home in Italy telecomitalia.it
Consequently, the regulator will have no trouble getting the list of IP addresses of the mainnet. However, this is not a problem only of TON but of any other Internet service.
Essentially, the Telegram Open Network is Pavel Durov’s attempt to implement an independent decentralised Internet based on the concept of WEB 3.0 within the existing global network, the interaction with which is carried out through already existing informational infrastructure of Telegram messenger.